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Hybrid (A/B + SLOs) testing

Scenario: Hybrid (A/B + SLOs) testing and progressive traffic shift of Seldon models

Hybrid (A/B + SLOs) testing enables you to combine A/B or A/B/n testing with a reward metric on the one hand with SLO validation using objectives on the other. Among the versions that satisfy objectives, the version which performs best in terms of the reward metric is the winner. In this tutorial, you will:

  1. Perform hybrid (A/B + SLOs) testing.
  2. Specify user-engagement as the reward metric; data for this metric will be provided by Prometheus.
  3. Specify latency and error-rate based objectives; data for these metrics will be provided by Prometheus.
  4. Combine hybrid (A/B + SLOs) testing with progressive traffic shift. Iter8 will progressively shift traffic towards the winner and promote it at the end as depicted below.

Quickstart Seldon

Platform setup

Follow these steps to install Seldon and Iter8 in your K8s cluster.

1. Create ML model versions

Deploy two Seldon Deployments corresponding to two versions of an Iris classification model, along with an Istio virtual service to split traffic between them.

kubectl apply -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/baseline.yaml
kubectl apply -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/candidate.yaml
kubectl apply -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/routing-rule.yaml
kubectl wait --for=condition=Ready --timeout=600s pods --all -n ns-baseline
kubectl wait --for=condition=Ready --timeout=600s pods --all -n ns-candidate
Look inside baseline.yaml
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apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: ns-baseline
---
apiVersion: machinelearning.seldon.io/v1
kind: SeldonDeployment
metadata:
  name: iris
  namespace: ns-baseline
spec:
  predictors:
  - name: default
    graph:
      name: classifier
      modelUri: gs://seldon-models/sklearn/iris
      implementation: SKLEARN_SERVER
Look inside candidate.yaml
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apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
    name: ns-candidate
---
apiVersion: machinelearning.seldon.io/v1
kind: SeldonDeployment
metadata:
  name: iris
  namespace: ns-candidate
spec:
  predictors:
  - name: default
    graph:
      name: classifier
      modelUri: gs://seldon-models/xgboost/iris
      implementation: XGBOOST_SERVER
Look inside routing-rule.yaml
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apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: routing-rule
  namespace: default
spec:
  gateways:
  - istio-system/seldon-gateway
  hosts:
  - iris.example.com
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: iris-default.ns-baseline.svc.cluster.local
        port:
          number: 8000
      headers:
        response:
          set:
            version: iris-v1
      weight: 100
    - destination:
        host: iris-default.ns-candidate.svc.cluster.local
        port:
          number: 8000
      headers:
        response:
          set:
            version: iris-v2
      weight: 0

2. Generate requests

Generate requests using Fortio as follows.

URL_VALUE="http://$(kubectl -n istio-system get svc istio-ingressgateway -o jsonpath='{.spec.clusterIP}'):80"
sed "s+URL_VALUE+${URL_VALUE}+g" $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/fortio.yaml | sed "s/6000s/600s/g" | kubectl apply -f -
Look inside fortio.yaml
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apiVersion: batch/v1
kind: Job
metadata:
  name: fortio-requests
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      volumes:
      - name: shared
        emptyDir: {}    
      containers:
      - name: fortio
        image: fortio/fortio
        command: [ 'fortio', 'load', '-t', '6000s', '-qps', "5", '-json', '/shared/fortiooutput.json', '-H', 'Host: iris.example.com', '-H', 'Content-Type: application/json', '-payload', '{"data": {"ndarray":[[6.8,2.8,4.8,1.4]]}}',  "$(URL)" ]
        env:
        - name: URL
          value: URL_VALUE/api/v1.0/predictions
        volumeMounts:
        - name: shared
          mountPath: /shared         
      - name: busybox
        image: busybox:1.28
        command: ['sh', '-c', 'echo busybox is running! && sleep 6000']          
        volumeMounts:
        - name: shared
          mountPath: /shared       
      restartPolicy: Never
---
apiVersion: batch/v1
kind: Job
metadata:
  name: fortio-irisv1-rewards
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      volumes:
      - name: shared
        emptyDir: {}    
      containers:
      - name: fortio
        image: fortio/fortio
        command: [ 'fortio', 'load', '-t', '6000s', '-qps', "0.7", '-json', '/shared/fortiooutput.json', '-H', 'Content-Type: application/json', '-payload', '{"reward": 1}',  "$(URL)" ]
        env:
        - name: URL
          value: URL_VALUE/seldon/ns-baseline/iris/api/v1.0/feedback
        volumeMounts:
        - name: shared
          mountPath: /shared         
      - name: busybox
        image: busybox:1.28
        command: ['sh', '-c', 'echo busybox is running! && sleep 6000']          
        volumeMounts:
        - name: shared
          mountPath: /shared       
      restartPolicy: Never
---
apiVersion: batch/v1
kind: Job
metadata:
  name: fortio-irisv2-rewards
spec:
  template:
    spec:
      volumes:
      - name: shared
        emptyDir: {}    
      containers:
      - name: fortio
        image: fortio/fortio
        command: [ 'fortio', 'load', '-t', '6000s', '-qps', "1", '-json', '/shared/fortiooutput.json', '-H', 'Content-Type: application/json', '-payload', '{"reward": 1}',  "$(URL)" ]
        env:
        - name: URL
          value: URL_VALUE/seldon/ns-candidate/iris/api/v1.0/feedback
        volumeMounts:
        - name: shared
          mountPath: /shared         
      - name: busybox
        image: busybox:1.28
        command: ['sh', '-c', 'echo busybox is running! && sleep 6000']          
        volumeMounts:
        - name: shared
          mountPath: /shared       
      restartPolicy: Never

3. Define metrics

Iter8 defines a custom K8s resource called Metric that makes it easy to use metrics from RESTful metric providers like Prometheus, New Relic, Sysdig and Elastic during experiments. Define the Iter8 metrics used in this experiment as follows.

kubectl apply -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/metrics.yaml
Look inside metrics.yaml
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apiVersion: v1
kind: Namespace
metadata:
  name: iter8-seldon
---
apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Metric
metadata:
  name: 95th-percentile-tail-latency
  namespace: iter8-seldon
spec:
  description: 95th percentile tail latency
  jqExpression: .data.result[0].value[1] | tonumber
  params:
  - name: query
    value: |
      histogram_quantile(0.95, sum(rate(seldon_api_executor_client_requests_seconds_bucket{seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) by (le))
  provider: prometheus
  sampleSize: iter8-seldon/request-count
  type: Gauge
  units: milliseconds
  urlTemplate: http://seldon-core-analytics-prometheus-seldon.seldon-system/api/v1/query
---
apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Metric
metadata:
  name: error-count
  namespace: iter8-seldon
spec:
  description: Number of error responses
  jqExpression: .data.result[0].value[1] | tonumber
  params:
  - name: query
    value: |
      sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_server_requests_seconds_count{code!='200',seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0)
  provider: prometheus
  type: Counter
  urlTemplate: http://seldon-core-analytics-prometheus-seldon.seldon-system/api/v1/query  
---
apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Metric
metadata:
  name: error-rate
  namespace: iter8-seldon
spec:
  description: Fraction of requests with error responses
  jqExpression: .data.result[0].value[1] | tonumber
  params:
  - name: query
    value: |
      (sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_server_requests_seconds_count{code!='200',seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0)) / (sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_server_requests_seconds_count{seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0))
  provider: prometheus
  sampleSize: iter8-seldon/request-count
  type: Gauge
  urlTemplate: http://seldon-core-analytics-prometheus-seldon.seldon-system/api/v1/query    
---
apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Metric
metadata:
  name: mean-latency
  namespace: iter8-seldon
spec:
  description: Mean latency
  jqExpression: .data.result[0].value[1] | tonumber
  params:
  - name: query
    value: |
      (sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_client_requests_seconds_sum{seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0)) / (sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_client_requests_seconds_count{seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0))
  provider: prometheus
  sampleSize: iter8-seldon/request-count
  type: Gauge
  units: milliseconds
  urlTemplate: http://seldon-core-analytics-prometheus-seldon.seldon-system/api/v1/query      
---
apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Metric
metadata:
  name: request-count
  namespace: iter8-seldon
spec:
  description: Number of requests
  jqExpression: .data.result[0].value[1] | tonumber
  params:
  - name: query
    value: |
      sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_client_requests_seconds_sum{seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0)
  provider: prometheus
  type: Counter
  urlTemplate: http://seldon-core-analytics-prometheus-seldon.seldon-system/api/v1/query
---
apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Metric
metadata:
  name: user-engagement
  namespace: iter8-seldon
spec:
  description: Number of feedback requests
  jqExpression: .data.result[0].value[1] | tonumber
  params:
  - name: query
    value: |
      sum(increase(seldon_api_executor_server_requests_seconds_count{service='feedback',seldon_deployment_id='$sid',kubernetes_namespace='$ns'}[${elapsedTime}s])) or on() vector(0)
  provider: prometheus
  type: Gauge
  urlTemplate: http://seldon-core-analytics-prometheus-seldon.seldon-system/api/v1/query
Metrics in your environment

You can define and use custom metrics from any database in Iter8 experiments.

For your application, replace the mocked user-engagement metric used in this tutorial with any custom metric you wish to optimize in the hybrid (A/B + SLOs) test. Documentation on defining custom metrics is here.

4. Launch experiment

Launch the hybrid (A/B + SLOs) testing & progressive traffic shift experiment as follows. This experiment also promotes the winning version of the model at the end.

kubectl apply -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/experiment.yaml
Look inside experiment.yaml
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apiVersion: iter8.tools/v2alpha2
kind: Experiment
metadata:
  name: quickstart-exp
spec:
  target: iris
  strategy:
    testingPattern: A/B
    deploymentPattern: Progressive
    actions:
      # when the experiment completes, promote the winning version using kubectl apply
      finish:
      - if: CandidateWon()
        run: "kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/iter8-tools/iter8/master/samples/seldon/quickstart/promote-v2.yaml"
      - if: not CandidateWon()
        run: "kubectl apply -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/iter8-tools/iter8/master/samples/seldon/quickstart/promote-v1.yaml"
  criteria:
    requestCount: iter8-seldon/request-count
    rewards: # Business rewards
    - metric: iter8-seldon/user-engagement
      preferredDirection: High # maximize user engagement
    objectives:
    - metric: iter8-seldon/mean-latency
      upperLimit: 2000
    - metric: iter8-seldon/95th-percentile-tail-latency
      upperLimit: 5000
    - metric: iter8-seldon/error-rate
      upperLimit: "0.01"
  duration:
    intervalSeconds: 10
    iterationsPerLoop: 5
  versionInfo:
    # information about model versions used in this experiment
    baseline:
      name: iris-v1
      weightObjRef:
        apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
        kind: VirtualService
        name: routing-rule
        namespace: default
        fieldPath: .spec.http[0].route[0].weight      
      variables:
      - name: ns
        value: ns-baseline
      - name: sid
        value: iris
    candidates:
    - name: iris-v2
      weightObjRef:
        apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
        kind: VirtualService
        name: routing-rule
        namespace: default
        fieldPath: .spec.http[0].route[1].weight      
      variables:
      - name: ns
        value: ns-candidate
      - name: sid
        value: iris   

5. Observe experiment

Follow these steps to observe your experiment.

6. Cleanup

kubectl delete -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/fortio.yaml
kubectl delete -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/experiment.yaml
kubectl delete -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/baseline.yaml
kubectl delete -f $ITER8/samples/seldon/quickstart/candidate.yaml
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